Author: Emma Leach

The Basics of Roofing Installation

The type of roofing material you choose will have a big impact on the cost of your roof. Asphalt shingles are inexpensive and provide adequate protection, while premium materials like slate or tile add value and last longer.


An underlayment is laid, along with the ice and water barrier if needed. Then, the shingles or metal panels are installed. Visit to learn more.

The first step in roofing installation is to ensure that the roof deck is strong and stable enough to support the new materials. If the deck is damaged or weakened, it must be repaired before any other work can be done.

Next, an underlayment is laid down to protect the new shingles or metal panels from moisture. It is made of felt paper or another waterproof material. It is nailed down, with close nails at the edge and nails spaced farther apart towards the middle. This helps to prevent moisture from penetrating the new roof and causing leaks.

Flashing is then installed around chimneys, windows, and joints, to keep water from sneaking in where it shouldn’t be. It is usually a metal material, but can also be plastic or rubber.

Finally, gutters are installed along the edges of the roofline. These help to direct rainwater away from the house, which can cause foundation problems if it’s allowed to pool near the structure.

Re-roofing is a process that can be costly, but it’s one of the best ways to improve the safety and value of your home. A top-tier roofing contractor will make sure the job is done right so you can enjoy your home for years to come.

If you’re interested in re-roofing your home, contact us to learn more about our services. We can answer any questions you have and walk you through the process step by step. We look forward to hearing from you!


If you’re installing a new roof, there are many different materials to choose from. You’ll want to know what each material is capable of, as well as how it can handle weather patterns in your region. Different roofing materials also offer different features that you may find attractive or useful for your home.

One of the most common types of roofing is shingles. They come in a variety of shapes, sizes and colours and are designed to protect the roof from rain, snow and hail. Asphalt shingles are durable and relatively inexpensive. They can last for decades.

Other materials used for residential roofs include wood shakes and slate tiles. Wood shakes are made from natural wood, typically either cedar or redwood, and have a rustic look that’s appealing to many homeowners. They are also resistant to fire and rot. However, they are not as long-lived as some other roofing materials, and may need to be replaced more frequently.

Slate roofing is a popular choice for luxury homes. This type of roofing is extremely attractive and durable, with a life expectancy of 50 years or more. However, it is expensive and difficult to install. It is also heavier than shingle roofing, and requires extra framing to support it.

Another option is a single-membrane system, such as EPDM or TPO. These systems are commonly used on low-slope flat roofs and can be installed in a single layer. They are highly reflective and can help cut energy costs.

Rolled roofing is another affordable option for low-slope roofs. It’s available in a variety of thicknesses and is usually applied with a torch down method or nails. Rolled roofing is best for sloped roofs that have a slight incline.

Metal roofs are durable and long-lasting, and they can provide good energy efficiency. They are also available in a variety of styles and finishes, including galvanized steel, aluminum and copper. They can be a good choice for regions with hot, humid weather.


Once you’ve obtained all necessary permits and your roof is ready for installation, your contractor will begin the work. Your local roofing company will provide you with a list of available options for your re-roofing project, including dimensional shingles to add curb appeal and energy efficiency, three-tab shingles to save money, wood shakes to enhance your home’s natural beauty, or metal sheeting for durability and longevity. They can also explain the strengths and limitations of each material.

They will protect the eaves with drip edge flashing and roof valleys with valley flashing and/or ice and water sheathing. They will also install new flashing around chimneys, wood stove pipes, certain vents, and along hip roofs if needed. Afterward, they will seal the flashing with roofing caulk and in other leak-prone areas of the roof with a bead of roofing cement.

The shingle installers will nail down the underlayment in rows, starting at the bottom edge of the roof and working up to the ridge. They will overlap the first row by six inches and fasten it with a pattern of close nails near the edge and wider nails farther out. They will then install the next row of underlayment, overlapping the previous row by at least four inches and nailing it with the same pattern.

They will also install gable and ridge vents to keep the attic ventilated, which protects the roof deck and insulation from moisture damage and regulates temperature throughout your home. They will then cover the vents and any exposed attic vents with a shingle called a ridge cap shingle to prevent uplift and provide a finished appearance. Your roof replacement will be complete once they clean up the debris and any stray nails or metal objects from your property. Then a final inspection is conducted to verify that the new roof complies with building codes and looks good!


The roof is one of the most important parts of your home. It protects everything inside from weather elements and adds to the curb appeal and value of your property. Whether you’re building a new house or replacing an existing roof, it’s essential to understand the maintenance process so that your roof lasts as long as possible and maintains its protective abilities.

The first step in maintenance is to clear away any debris from the work area. The roofing crew will also inspect the flashing (the metal sheets at the roof’s valleys and joints) and drip edges to determine if they need to be replaced. If they are in good shape, they will be reused under the new roofing materials.

Once the roof is free of any trash or old shingles, the crew will seal and caulk any raw edges. This will help to keep water from seeping in and causing damage to the insulation and wood roof deck. The crew will also caulk around any pipes that run through the roof, such as those for sewer venting or kitchen or bathroom fans.

Finally, the crew will install ridge caps on the peak of your roof. These shingles are designed to give your roof a finished appearance and additional protection against weather elements. The ridge cap shingles are secured with a special nail that is longer than those used on the rest of the shingle to provide a stronger hold and prevent wind uplift.

To keep your roof in top condition, you should have it inspected and maintained regularly by a professional. Regular inspections can catch small problems before they become major issues, and they can help you avoid costly repairs in the future. You should also clean your gutters frequently to prevent clogging and trim any overhanging branches that could be damaged by storms or wind.

Understanding and Treating Dry Eye Syndrome: Strategies and Solutions

Dry Eye Baltimore, MD syndrome is a common condition affecting millions worldwide. It is characterized by inadequate tear production or poor tear quality. If left untreated, it can cause discomfort, irritation, and even vision problems. Fortunately, numerous treatment options are available to alleviate symptoms and improve ocular health.

Dry Eye Syndrome

Understanding Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndrome occurs when the eyes don’t produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly. Tears are essential for maintaining the health of the eye’s front surface and for providing clear vision. When there is an imbalance in tear production, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including:

  • Persistent dryness
  • Grittiness or feeling like something is in the eye
  • Redness
  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Eye fatigue

Several factors can contribute to dry eye syndrome, including age, gender (women are more prone), environmental conditions, certain medications, and underlying health conditions like autoimmune diseases.

Dry eye syndrome is a prevalent ocular condition characterized by a deficiency in tear production or poor tear quality. Tears are essential for maintaining the health and lubrication of the eyes. When the tear film is disrupted, it can lead to discomfort, irritation, and visual disturbances.

Several factors contribute to the development of dry eye syndrome. Age is a significant factor, as tear production tends to decrease with age. Hormonal changes, particularly in women, can also influence tear production. Environmental factors such as dry or windy conditions, air conditioning, and prolonged screen time exacerbate symptoms. Additionally, certain medications, medical conditions like autoimmune diseases, and refractive surgeries can contribute to dry eye syndrome.

The symptoms of dry eye syndrome can vary from mild to severe and may include sensations of dryness, grittiness, burning, or itching in the eyes. Vision may become blurred, and sensitivity to light can increase. These symptoms can have a significant impact on daily activities and overall quality of life.

There are two main types of dry eye syndrome: aqueous deficient and evaporative. Aqueous deficient dry eye occurs when the lacrimal glands fail to produce enough watery component of tears, while evaporative dry eye is caused by inadequate oil secretion from the meibomian glands, leading to increased tear evaporation.

Diagnosis of dry eye syndrome typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including evaluation of symptoms, tear production, and tear film quality. Specialized tests such as tear osmolarity measurement and imaging of the tear glands may be used to assess the severity and underlying causes of the condition.

Treatment for dry eye syndrome aims to alleviate symptoms, improve tear quality, and prevent complications. It often begins with over-the-counter artificial tear drops to lubricate the eyes. In more severe cases, prescription medications, punctal plugs to block tear drainage, or procedures like LipiFlow® to clear blocked oil glands may be recommended.

In addition to medical treatments, lifestyle modifications can play a crucial role in managing dry eye syndrome. These include using humidifiers to add moisture to the air, taking regular breaks during prolonged screen use, avoiding exposure to smoke and wind, and staying hydrated.

Regular follow-up appointments with an eye care professional are essential for monitoring the progression of dry eye syndrome and adjusting treatment as needed. With proper management, most individuals with dry eye syndrome can find relief from their symptoms and maintain good eye health.

Causes of Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndrome can arise from various factors that disrupt the delicate balance of tear production, distribution, and quality. One primary cause is age-related changes in tear production. As people age, tear production tends to decrease, leading to a higher prevalence of dry eye symptoms, especially in individuals over 50.

Hormonal fluctuations also contribute to dry eye, particularly in women. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, menopause, or while using oral contraceptives can affect tear composition and volume, making women more susceptible to dry eye syndrome.

Environmental factors play a significant role in exacerbating dry eye symptoms. Dry and windy conditions, as well as exposure to air conditioning or heating systems, can evaporate tears more quickly, leaving the eyes dry and irritated. Prolonged screen time and focusing on digital devices can also reduce blink rates, leading to incomplete spreading of tears across the ocular surface.

Certain medications are known to cause or worsen dry eye symptoms. Antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, and medications for high blood pressure are among the drugs that can reduce tear production or alter tear composition. Additionally, medical conditions such as autoimmune diseases (e.g., Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis) and diabetes can impact tear production and quality, leading to chronic dry eye.

Refractive surgeries, such as LASIK or PRK, can also induce dry eye symptoms as they may disrupt corneal nerves and reduce tear production. While these procedures often result in improved vision, they can cause temporary or even persistent dryness in some individuals, necessitating careful preoperative evaluation and postoperative management to minimize discomfort and optimize healing.

Treatment Approaches

Treatment for dry eye syndrome aims to relieve symptoms, restore the health of the ocular surface, and prevent further complications. Here are some common approaches:

  1. Artificial Tears: Lubricating eye drops are the first line of defense for mild cases. They supplement natural tears and provide relief from dryness and irritation.
  2. Prescription Eye Drops: For moderate to severe dry eye, prescription medications may be necessary. These include eye drops that reduce inflammation or increase tear production.
  3. Punctal Plugs: These tiny plugs are inserted into the tear ducts to block drainage, helping tears remain on the surface of the eye longer.
  4. LipiFlow®: This innovative treatment addresses evaporative dry eye by applying gentle heat and pressure to the eyelids, clearing blocked oil glands and improving tear quality.
  5. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) Therapy: IPL therapy has shown promising results in managing meibomian gland dysfunction, a common cause of evaporative dry eye. It reduces inflammation and improves gland function.
  6. Nutritional Supplements: Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oil supplements, may help improve tear quality and reduce inflammation.
  7. Lifestyle Changes: Simple adjustments such as using a humidifier, taking regular breaks during screen time, and avoiding smoke and wind can alleviate dry eye symptoms.
  8. Eyelid Hygiene: Regular eyelid hygiene, including warm compresses and gentle lid scrubs, can help maintain clean and healthy eyelids, reducing the risk of inflammation.

Dry eye syndrome is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management. With a combination of lifestyle changes, home remedies, and medical interventions, most people can find relief from their symptoms and prevent further complications. It’s essential to work closely with an eye care professional to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual case. By addressing dry eye promptly and effectively, patients can enjoy improved comfort and vision quality.